Did Qantas really 'invent' business class?

Qantas has long claimed to have created business class, but the real story is a little less clear-cut and much more fascinating.

By Chris Chamberlin, July 15 2020
Did Qantas really 'invent' business class?

The presence of business class is something that's taken for granted on international and even domestic flights, and Qantas isn't shy in trotting out the invention of business class as one of its credentials.

"People forget that the Qantas Group actually invented Business Class travel in 1979," airline CEO Alan Joyce says, with the concept taking wing on the flagship Boeing 747 fleet.

"Qantas changed long-haul flying with each new decade. In the 1970s, it invented business class," the airline's website notes, while repeating the claim in its current inflight safety video, while the website also lists that in 1979, “Qantas introduced Business Class air travel, becoming the first airline in the world to do so.”

But was Qantas really the first airline with business class? We did a little digging to find out.

Before business class

In the early 1970s, international air travel meant wrapping yourself in first class luxury or settling for a long stint down the back in economy.

However, as the decade progressed, airlines began to realise there was a potentially lucrative gap between those classes and the experience we now know as business class began to take shape.

Pitched as being better than economy but without the sky-high price tag of first class – which many companies had already barred from their travel policies – business class achieved a better balance of comfort, convenience and price.

1975: Economy, with a little extra

By 1975 – four years before Qantas introduced business class – a number of global airlines had begun seating their highest-paying economy class passengers in a dedicated section of the plane.

Located at the front of the economy cabin, these travellers still flew in what were regular economy class seats, but with a few added extras to make the journey more comfortable.

Japan Airlines, for example, treated these flyers to airport lounge access in Tokyo, while KLM rolled out the red carpet at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport and New York JFK, offering priority check-in and priority baggage handling.

These would later become key benefits of the business class experience – but for now, this was just economy with some premium add-ons.

1977: ‘Business class’ gets its name

Within two years, Thai Airways had not only adopted the same special seating zone for its higher-paying passengers, but had also given this section a new name: “business class”.

Seen here in an announcement in 1977, the airline refers to the experience as “a new class … for (businesspeople) and other passengers paying the full economy fare,” being “a closed off section between first and economy, with (fewer) seats and more room.”

Thai Airways introduces business class in 1977, aboard its DC10.
Thai Airways introduces business class in 1977, aboard its DC10.

The cabin is clearly described as “Thai’s Business Class”, also offering “the latest financial magazines and newspapers, a serve-yourself drinks bar, and the sort of food Thai (Airways) is famous for.”

Still, despite the ‘business class’ name, passengers were in what would otherwise be economy class seats.

1978: Pan Am debuts Clipper Class

With Air France and British Airways similarly creating a premium zone for higher-spending economy passengers, Pan American World Airways (better known as Pan Am) was next to unveil its own ‘in-between’ cabin, Clipper Class, in 1978.

Speaking with media at the time, Pan Am’s Managing Director for South-West Pacific, Michael Merlini, described the service as being “aimed at normal full fare economy passengers, including many business travellers”, while remaining priced at those full-fare economy levels.

Like other airlines, Clipper Class passengers were seated in a dedicated section of the plane – and offered premium extras like priority check-in, airport lounge access, “superior meals” and free drinks and headsets – but the seats here were still no better than those in regular economy.

Pan Am Clipper Class began as improved service in a regular economy seat.
Pan Am Clipper Class began as improved service in a regular economy seat.

Pan Am did promise Clipper Class passengers “an empty seat beside you, whenever possible,” but that was far from a guarantee: and on full flights, the comfort in Clipper Class would once again remain no better than in standard economy.

1979: Qantas develops its own business class

A year after Pan Am first announced Clipper Class, Qantas took the opportunity to roll out a “business class” of its own – but with a wider, more comfortable seat compared to economy class. This was, arguably, the creation of business class as we know it today.

In addition to the superior seat, Qantas promised its business class would offer those extras that travellers had come to expect elsewhere – priority ground service and lounge access, better food, free drinks and more.

For this added privilege, Qantas would charge a 15% pricing premium over and above its full-fare economy ticket prices: positioning the product not as ‘the best way to fly economy’ as with other airlines, but in a completely new class of its own, with a price to match.

The 'original' Qantas business class, seen on the Boeing 747-200.
The 'original' Qantas business class, seen on the Boeing 747-200.

In fact, the concept was such a departure from what other airlines were doing at the time, that the US Government almost banned Qantas business class from its skies.

Wrongly believing that Qantas business class was, like so many others, offered in an economy-style seat, the US Civil Aeronautics Board recommended it be banned, because it thought Qantas’ 15% pricing premium was, in effect, a fare hike for economy passengers.

Qantas had to take its case to none other than US President Jimmy Carter, who did understand the concept, and gave the green light.

1979-1980: Qantas business class takes off

Now cleared to fly, Qantas cranked up its marketing efforts to explain exactly what made Qantas business class different to the ‘business class’ of other airlines.

In this 1979 newspaper ad, Qantas boasts that “it’s not just a section of Economy with a fancy name, as offered by some of our competitors. You’ll be sitting in a comfortable lounge chair that many airlines would be proud to have in their First Class.”

A Qantas advertisement from 1979 explains the concept of its new business class.
A Qantas advertisement from 1979 explains the concept of its new business class.

It didn’t take long for rival Pan Am to hit back, highlighting that the value in its Clipper Class service was the lack of a “15% surcharge” on flights between Sydney and Los Angeles, in a clear swipe at Qantas.

Pan Am spruiks its Clipper Class service as being on-par with business class.
Pan Am spruiks its Clipper Class service as being on-par with business class.

The ‘advertising wars’ continued into the following year, with Qantas using visuals to illustrate why Clipper Class was more akin to economy, and why Qantas business class was different.

Qantas goes head-to-head with Pan Am on which has the 'real' business class.
Qantas goes head-to-head with Pan Am on which has the 'real' business class.

Hinting at Pan Am’s Clipper Class, the ad reads: “They say they might leave the middle seat in a row of three vacant if possible, but you’re still in what you paid for, an economy class seat. Fly Qantas Business Class, and we’ll guarantee you’ll never be more than one seat from the aisle.”

“Yes, you pay a little more for Qantas Business Class, but then you owe it to yourself,” the ad justifies.

The following year, Pan Am finally conceded the business class battle, taking on board Qantas’ concept of a more comfortable and spacious seat not otherwise found in economy, making Clipper Class 2.0 Pan Am’s true Business Class 1.0.

Pan Am waits until 1981 to ditch the economy-style seating in Clipper Class.
Pan Am waits until 1981 to ditch the economy-style seating in Clipper Class.

So: did Qantas really 'invent' business class?

As history shows, Qantas was neither the first airline to offer a ‘better than economy, but less than first class’ experience, nor the first airline to actually use the term “business class”, the title for which belongs to Thai Airways.

However, capping years of innovation by a number of airlines, Qantas was the first to pull together the complete business class package as a true 'mid-tier' cabin and travel experience: not just an economy class seat with a few nice extras, but a rounded bundle of benefits both in the air and on the ground, sold – and priced – as a pleasingly superior alternative to economy.

Also read: How British Airways created the world's first lie-flat business class bed

Chris Chamberlin

Chris Chamberlin is the Associate Editor of Executive Traveller, and lives by the motto that a journey of a thousand miles begins not just with a single step, but also a strong latte, a theatre ticket, and later in the day, a good gin and tonic.

24 Aug 2011

Total posts 808

In many ways, Business Class in the '70s has been repeated in the past decade with Premium Economy; very different products using the same name. If we say the invention of Business Class as a product with significantly different hard and soft product from Economy then Qantas deserves the title as its inventor just as Virgin Atlantic owns the title as the inventor of Premium Economy.

15 Feb 2013

Total posts 162

Exactly! Pretty much Business Class is now the new First Class and Premium Economy is the new Business, especially with airlines removing First in many cases. Even Premium economy these days is more than the original Business class with larger seats and better food, for most international airlines that have it (although I'd argue that Qantas is a “Business-lite” product whereas others like BA are more “Economy-plus”).

What a great read, Chris. I know the ET team is always kept pretty busy with news and 'guides' and so on but it's really good to see articles like this too.

Qantas - Qantas Frequent Flyer

01 Mar 2013

Total posts 171

Bravo, Chris. That's the great thing about history. We can all learn from it. Cheers

Qantas - Qantas Frequent Flyer

28 Dec 2018

Total posts 2

Hi Chris, my wife flew QF from Athens to Sydney in 1978 in what was called Q-tag. Cheers

Virgin Australia - Velocity Rewards

14 Mar 2017

Total posts 152

I hope she was scanned automatically and did not get lost in transit?

Qantas - Qantas Frequent Flyer

28 Dec 2018

Total posts 2

VG!

Qantas - Qantas Frequent Flyer

15 Jul 2020

Total posts 1

The concept of ‘business class' was started by Scandinavian Airlines System SAS in the late 1960's. It's CEO saw a need of business travellers to get away from noisy crowded economy class while not having to splurge employers' money on First class on business commutes.

Business class today has mutated into something with an emphasis on luxury, pampering and status.

Etihad - Etihad Guest

31 May 2019

Total posts 4

This is a fascinating read and I love seeing these ads! Thank you.

Qantas - Qantas Frequent Flyer

17 Mar 2017

Total posts 14

Thanks for the great read.
If only it was still a 15% premium.

17 Jun 2020

Total posts 163

QF might have invented business class but they sure knew how to stuff it up with Neil Perry catering, cafe breakfast on Asia flights and the crappy B747 (Rego was OBE from memory)

Me
Me

22 Oct 2019

Total posts 1

And what has QF done, since 1979, of similar merit?

24 Aug 2011

Total posts 808

Apparently they revolutionised Premium Economy ;)

Qantas - Qantas Frequent Flyer

27 Nov 2017

Total posts 24

Eliminated having to fly through Asia by introducing Perth to London non-stop.

Virgin Australia - Velocity Rewards

14 Mar 2017

Total posts 152

That's hardly revolutionary, though, is it? It's been possible for decades. The A340 could do Sydney to London, it just couldn't do it affordably.

29 Jan 2020

Total posts 22

Great read, thanks!

Qantas - Qantas Frequent Flyer P1

23 Aug 2014

Total posts 61

My father worked for Pan Am before its dissolution and the Qantas product was clearly superior to the Clipper Class product - the First product on the 747SP particularly on the Syd-Lax flights and Sfo-Hkg was stunning; I still recall, as a child, wondering how the plane would negotiate the landing at Kai Tak; apologies for being a bit off topic COVID-enforced involuntary detoxification from flying addiction.

Virgin Australia - Velocity Rewards

20 Jul 2018

Total posts 13

Interesting article! Does anyone know what the approximate pitch and recline of those early Qantas and and PanAm business/clipper class seats was? Given regular economy class pitch was still pretty generous then, you'd assume pitch for business class was comparable to the more spacious Premium Economy products of today?

Qantas quotes a $1,524 round trip SYD-SFO fare, which equates to $7,455 when converted from 1979 to 2020 dollars, so although it may only have been a 15% premium over economy this was still not exactly cheap.

08 Aug 2017

Total posts 44

Does anyone know what the approximate pitch and recline of those early Qantas and and PanAm business/clipper class seats was?

Sadly I don't... I certainly flew it. We moved to the USA when I was about 10 years old and I flew back and forth a number of times in QF business but that's a particular detail I can't recall! I do remember the stocky 747SP with enormous fondness though: when it started to LAX (1982 or 1983?) the trip became non-stop; no more transitting in Honolulu. Absolutely tremendous.

08 Aug 2017

Total posts 44

But I don't think my 10 yo feet could touch the seat in front!

Emirates Airlines - Skywards

19 Jul 2014

Total posts 25

When I was flying for QF they brought in what was called QT cabin zone B on the 747. That zone was for QT pax, (Qantas Traveller) original configuration of 3/4/2, free drinks regular e/y meals delivered directly to seatsFor full fare and regular travellers. This eventually evolved into B/C or sometimes known as 'pigs in space'

09 Apr 2020

Total posts 11

British Caledonian Super Executive Class

Virgin Australia - Velocity Rewards

24 Jan 2018

Total posts 370

Whilst in my mind there can be no doubt that VA overtook QF in its Business Class service (domestically and internationally), I think FULL CREDIT must go to Qantas for the way they developed the product back in the 1970s in a way that neither Thai, PanAm, etc., could have imagined (add 'imagination' to the list of kudos adjectives deserved by Qantas). Qantas pioneered it to the point all others had to copy of be left behind.

And to be fair, Qantas rebounded and lifted after VF raised the bar. Even today, its by no means an 'entry level' J Class, and like it or not, QFFs have VA to thank for that. I sure hope VA-2 retains the same J-Class offering I enjoyed until March on VA-1.


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